HEBREW NAMES 'PLUS' VERSION
of the B'rit Chadashah
For some information on pronouncing the Hebrew, see the introductory portion of the glossary.
"Yeshua" is not italicized in the text. Should we not give the "name above all names" (Phil. 2:9) its proper original pronunciation?
Notes on words or verses often misunderstood by many are noted in red.
Link to BOOKS OF THE HEBREW NAMES 'PLUS' VERSION
1:16: ba`al: (1167)[127b] owner, lord, master, husband; (בַּעַל) from 1166 - ba`al: to marry, rule over. (Is. 54:5: "For your maker is your ba`al; Yahweh Tz'va'ot is his name.")
1:23a: almah. (5959)[761c] fem. of 5958 (a young man; youth); a young woman, a virgin. "There is no instance where it can be proved that almah designates a young woman who is not a virgin." - Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (TWOT), pg. 672.
1:23b: "call his name" - A Hebrew idiom. We would say simply "call him" or "name him."
2:1: wise men: "Taking everything into consideration, it is my own personal opinion that these were not Persian astrologers but Jewish sages who for centuries had been anticipating the coming of Messiah which, according to Num. 4:17, was to be indicated by the appearance of a star." - R. Blizzard, "As I See It," Yavo Digest, vol. 4, no. 3, 1990, pg. 17.
Dr. Blizzard has also opined concerning the "wise men" that, because of them, Yeshua should not be considered to have been a poor man. When a foreign dignitary would come to visit a king, he would come with significant gifts in hand, not a few trinkets as is usually pictured with the "three" wise men. They were coming to pay homage to a new king at his birth, and their gifts would have permitted the family to travel to Egypt for the necessary time, then return to Nazareth where they would have lived comfortably, with Yosef's work as a carpenter as added income.
Expanding on this, we may expect that, through frugality and conservation, Yeshua could have financed his travels around Judea and the Galilee, as well as having purchased a house in K'far Nachum (Capernaum), "his own city" (Matt. 9:1).
2:2: The idea of "worship" is to "bow": Greek - (G4352) proskuneō (προσκυνέō). To do reverence to (bow down, prostrate, worship). Hebrew: from the root (H7812) shachah (שָׁחָה). To bow down (pay homage, prostrate, worship). Related Hebrew thought is to bless, kneel (H1288) barakh (בָּרַךְ); from which comes "knee" (H1290) berekh.
2:6: "in no way least" or "too little to be" or "little to be".
2:18: or "on high" (7414: ramah, height; from 7311: rum, to be high or exalted.)
2:23: Nazareth/Notzri (one from Nazareth). Probably from netzer (5342: נֵ֫צֶר): a sprout, branch. .
3:2: "at hand": in Hebrew thought, "here now."
4:1: ha-satan: see glossary.
4:23: See qahal
4:24: "moonstruck," epileptic, supposedly influenced by the moon. (Grk. seleniazo 4583).
5:12: See 26:49N.
5:18: truly, verily, amen - See Lindsey, "Verily or Amen?"
5:22, 29, 30: This was a threat of being thrown into a burning trash pit. See glossary.
5:28: "lust" - The 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia says: "Yetzer ha-ra: Evil inclination or impulse, popularly identified with the lusts of the flesh. ... in a way, the Yeẓer ha-Ra', like all things which God made (Gen. i. 31), is good. Without it, for example, a man would never marry, beget, build a house, or trade (Gen. R. ix. 9)."
BDB: chamad - "in bad sense of inordinate, ungoverned, selfish desire, ... take pleasure in, of idolatrous tendency."
Beautiful things are to be desired. The sin of lust is when that "ungoverned, selfish desire" is acted on and becomes an obsession and driving force.
5:29-30: These two verses are Hyperbole. Yeshua could be describing a sin in a person's life that should be removed so that he might be saved.
5:32: This was regarding the terms of a legal contract. If the bridegroom discovered, after the wedding, that his bride did not fulfill the term of the contract, he could put her away. The term was that she was to be a virgin.
5:34: "falsely" - the sages had determined that it was allowable to swear falsely by things other than Yahweh's name. (Shebuoth VI). The word "falsely" is missing from most mss, but is present in the Hebrew Matthew of Baal Shem Tov. (Nehemia Gordon: The Hebrew Yeshua vs the Greek Jesus, pg. 65). Without the word in the verse, Yeshua would be changing Torah. Yahweh commanded in Lev. 19:12: "And ye shall not swear by my name falsely,..." In Deut. 6:13 and 10:20, there are commands to "swear by his name." Further, Heb. 6:13 "For when God made a promise to Abraham, because he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself," (Gen. 22:16).
5:41: mile; Grk. million; Lat. milia. A Roman soldier could conscript a citizen to carry his equipment for one mile. Mile posts were placed along the roadways as markers.
5:48: "perfect": Grk. teleios (5046 τέλειος), having reached its end, i.e., complete, by ext. perfect. From 5056, telos τέλος: an end, a toll, finished. See also Yoch. 19:30N.
6:7: "vain repetition": battalogeō (G945), from Battos: Stammerer, the name of a king of Cyrene.
6:13a: Translation by Dr. Brad Young, 1984.
6:13b: This portion is not in all texts.
6:23: Hebraic idioms: "Good, sound, healthy, etc." eye and "evil, bad, unhealthy, etc." eye mean, respectively, a person is generous or stingy/selfish. They have nothing to do with "casting a spell" or such like, as is encountered in pagan rituals.
7:22: See the Hebrew idiomatic meaning of "name".
8:12: sons (or children) of the kingdom - Jews. This isn't necessarily "replacement theology," but some of those who truly expect to be automatically a part of the kingdom may find themselves relegated to being outside the gates.
8:14: Hebrew "mother-in-law" is chamot, not em and ishshah.
8:20: Bar Enash. Dan. 7:13 (Ara.): "I saw in the night visions, and behold, [one] like the Son of man (Bar Enash) came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him." There's a good possibility that Yeshua referred to himself using this term.
8:21: This probably means, "Let me wait until my father dies." (JNTC)
9:2: "forgiven" - Heb. salach (5545) - to forgive, pardon. This word is used only about Elohim's power, but Yeshua had been given this authority by his Father.
9:20: See Mark 5:28N.
10:4: See Qana'i in glossary.
10:4: See 26:14N.
10:10: This might sound like the shlichim were supposed to be beggars, but it was (and still is) part of Judaism to give to travelers their daily needs.
10:17: See qahal
10:17: See Chazzan
10:28: See 5:22N.
11:11: "Amein" before a comment? or as a response to a prior event or comment? See Lindsey: Verily or Amen?.
11:12: See Mic. 2:13. "Violence" in KJV, NIV, NASB, RSV, etc. is a poor interpretation. The breaker will break out (open the sheep fold by removing a part of the wall which constitutes it); Greek biazetai [βιάζεται], "has used force" to open a way), pass through this newly opened "gate", and lead the sheep out.
11:13: "concerning" rather than "until" (in Heb. Matt. per Gordon, pg. 43).
13:30: WHO will be taken first at the supposed "rapture"? And WHEN will they be taken? (See verses 39-40: the END, not 7 or 3-1/2 years before the end. (I.e., it will be AFTER the tribulation, Matt. 24:29-30, and "every eye will see him." [Rev. 1:7] Doesn't really sound like a "secret" rapture, does it?) I want to be "left behind"! (i.e., taken last.)
14:6: One of two birthday celebrations mentioned in the Bible. (Gen. 40:20) Not even Yeshua's birthday was commanded to be observed. Birthdays bring attention to the individual for something over which he had no control and are a form of homage paid to the honoree. Of the two in the Bible, both had less-than-happy outcomes for some of those involved. (Also, Job 1:4ff may refer to Job's sons celebrating their birthdays with tragic consequences.)
14:25: "fourth watch of the night": approximately between 3 and 6 a.m. The night was divided into 4 watches of 3 hours each, the day into 3 watches of 4 hours.
14:26: KJV "ghost." Gr. phantasma, φάντασμα, apparition, appearance. Two Hebrew translations give mareh ruach (spirit vision) and ruach. No non-Latin-based English word seems to fit.
14:27: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See Yoch. 9:9N and 18:5N.
15:2: Kabbalah, tradition. (kabbalat = "tradition of".) Three witnesses for this word: The New Testament in Hebrew on dvar-adonai.org (no longer on-line), The New Testament in Hebrew and English, and The New Bantam-Megiddo Hebrew & English Dictionary, 1975.
15:5: qorban, gifts; Grk, dōron (1435) (see Lev. 2:1 LXX): a gift, present, spec. a sacrifice (zevach). - The rabbis determined that some offerings could be dedicated to the service of the Temple or to YHWH but retained and used by the giver. Some people made these offerings and then would not use them to take care of their parents because they were qorban, dedicated.
16:16: Kefa said "you are the son of the God who lives." They were in the area of Caesarea Philippi (Banyas) in the north, a center of pagan worship where there were many statues of pagan - nonliving - gods.
17:15: See 4:24N.
17:21: This verse is not in the oldest mss.
17:24-25: This tribute is commonly called the "Temple tax" and is taken from Ex. 30 where every man was required to give a half shekel "for the service of the tabernacle." The stater in 17:27 is equal to a shekel.
18:11: Not in all manuscripts.
18:24: "Talent" is from the Greek talanton τάλαντον (5007); a balance, hence that which is weighed. Kikkrei kasef: kikkar (3603): a round weight (a measure of weight or money); (construct: "weight of", kikkrei). kesef (3701): silver, money.
19:9a: See 5:32N.
19:9b: The last part of the verse is not in all ancient manuscripts or all modern translations, and contradicts Deut. 24:2. Yeshua did not come to change Torah (Matt. 5:17), but someone may have tried to make it appear so. This divorce was allowed for "sexual immorality" because of a legally binding marriage contract. If the woman had violated the term of the contract by failing to provide her "tokens of virginity," the contract was considered null and void. (See also Mark 10:11-12. Whoever divorces his/her spouse in order to marry another commits adultery.)
20:15: See Markos 7:22N.
20:16: This sentence is not in all manuscripts.
20:23: Not in all manuscripts.
21:9: The usual translation, "Hosanna in the highest," lacks the essence of the phrase! The usual connotation is "praise him in the heavens." But "hosanna" is the Hebrew phrase hoshia na, which means "save us (or deliver us) now (or please)." The multitude is beseeching the One in the heavens, or the high places, to "save us now." See also Ps. 118:25.
21:16: "babes" - nepios (3516) (pl. nepiōn): infant, fig. a simple-minded or immature person.
23:3: Hebrew Matthew: "he" = Mosheh (Gordon, pg. 48.) If Yeshua had told them to do what the P'rushim tell them to do, there's a good chance that they would have been told to do something contrary to the Torah, i.e., to follow "mitzvot anashim," commands of men.
23:6: See qahal
24:5: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See Yoch. 9:9N and 18:5N.
24:19: "those who are with child and to nursing imot": lit. "those having in womb and to those suckling"
24:27: "Bar Enash" See 8:20N. RETURN
25:13: Not in all texts. RETURN
25:15: A talent was more than 15 years' wages for a laborer. RETURN
25:41: "The division is absolute between inheriting the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world (v. 34) and going into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels (v. 41; not for men). Eternal punishment and eternal life (v. 46) are not necessarily the same in duration. Eternal (Gk. aiōnios) simply refers to the age to come and makes the point that the division is final for men's destiny." (The New Bible Commentary: Revised, Guideposts, 1984, pg 846.)
26:14: Judas Iscariot, Y'hudah ish K'riyot: Judas, man of K'riyot, (Jer. 48:24; Amos 2;2)
26:19: "Pesach" is not a "day". It is the sacrifice itself made just prior to the evening which begins Chag ha-Matzot.
It was not to remain until the morning, but was to be burnt with fire (Ex. 12:10). It can't last seven (or eight) days.
A sacrifice can be:
"killed" (2 Chron. 30:15),
"made ready" (Mark 14:16),
"sacrificed" (Deut. 16:2),
"roasted" (2 Chron. 35:13),
"eaten" (Mark 14:14).
A "day" cannot.
See also John 7:37
26:22: Grk. "Meti egō eimi." (Μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι - Not I am [he].) See Yoch. 9:9N and 18:5N.
26:26: Many translations say he blessed the bread or "[it]". The bread is not "blessed." The prayer (blessing) said at the breaking of the bread is, "Blessed are you, Yahweh our Elohim, king of the universe, who brings forth bread from the earth." The creation does not receive the blessing; the Creator does.
26:49: "Hail" is the Greek word chairō,- χαίρω (5463), defined as "rejoice." Two Hebrew translations of the NT use shalom, but chairō appears to fit the situation here. (See also 27:29N; 28:9N)
26:59: sod - the only word used in the TaNaKh for "council." Sanhedrin (sunedrion - συνέδριον ) is a Greek word.
26:65: When Kayafa tore his clothing, this may have disqualified him from the priesthood (Lev. 21:10).
27:9 - "Yirmeyahu the prophet. Although a passing allusion to Jeremiah 32:6-9 may be implied, the reference is to Zechariah 11:12-13, cited loosely or from memory. Why would Mattai ascribe the words to Jeremiah? One suggestion is supported by Talmudic references: the scroll of the Prophets may have originally begun with Jeremiah (the longest book, by word count), not Isaiah; if so, Mattai by naming Jeremiah is referring to the Prophets as a group, not name the particular prophet quoted." Jewish New Testament Commentary, David H. Stern, 1992
27:29: The Greek here is also chairo (see 26:49N), but being in a mocking sense and not a personal greeting, perhaps the closest Hebrew word should be gil, which is used in Zech. 9:9: "Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion." (27:29; 28:9).
27:33: skull; Hebrew gulgolet (1538) - a skull, head, poll (1 Chron. 23:3, 24 - census taken by counting "skulls"). The "place of the skulls" was probably on the Mount of Olives.
27:49: Some versions add: "Another took a spear and pierced his side, and out came water and blood." Cf. John 19:34.
27:56: Miryam ha-Magdalit. See Markos 15:40N.
27:62: "the day after the preparation," i.e., the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Chag ha-Matzot), not the weekly Sabbath.
28:1: " 'After Shabbat, toward dawn on Sunday,'* literally, 'And late of the shabbatot, at the drawing on toward (number) one of the Shabbatot [ = weeks].' Jewish days begin at sundown, so that 'the first day of the week' includes Saturday night, Motza'ei-Shabbat ('the going out of Shabbat'), but here the reference is definitely to Sunday morning." --- Jewish New Testament Commentary, pg. 85. (* quoting JNT)
28:9: See 26:49N.
28:19: See 7:22N.
1:13: "Satan" is NOT a proper name. See glossary and As I See It2.
2:5,7,9,10 et seq. Heb. salach (5545) - to forgive, pardon. Always spoken of Elohim. "This verb, together with a few others, such as bara' "to create," is used in Scripture solely of God. salach is used of God's offer of pardon and forgiveness to the sinner. Never does this word in any of its forms refer to people forgiving each other." (TWOT, pg. 626) (This would fit into Yeshua's announcing "all power is given unto me, both in heaven and in earth," NOT that he was claiming to be God.)
2:10: [♦♦] See Matt. 8:20N.
2:22: Dr. Brad Young, Yavo Digest, V3, N5. pg 1, 1989: "Old wine" (yayin) refers to traditional Judaism with its faith and practices, while the new wine (tirosh) refers to Pharisaical Judaism with its new fasts instituted "to intensify the spiritual awareness of the poeple." Yeshua wanted to see "fresh winskins [the people] for old wine. The truth and grace of the ancient faith must be renewed for all the peple. ... Men and women of God must be renewed in order to hold the old wine."
3:7: ha-Galil, up to 35 miles away.
Y'hudah, 60-100 miles
Yerushalayim, 80 miles
Edom, 100+ miles
Beyond ha-Yarden, 10-50 miles
Tzor (Tyre), 40 miles
Tzidon (Sidon), 55 miles
They didn't just go down one afternoon for a day trip out of curiosity.
3:18: KJV says "Canaanite." See Kana-ite in glossary and Luke 6:15N.
5:28(1) "garment" - See Mal. 4:2. The Hebrew word for "wing" is kanaf (3671). It is also the word for "corner." This woman knew that if she could only touch the hem of his garment, she would receive that "healing." In Num. 15:38-29, God told his people to put "fringes on the corners of their garments."
5:28(2) "saved" - from Grk. sozo (σώζω): safe, well; to save, cure, make well, restore, save(d). Used in Matt. 10:22; John 10:9; and Act 2:21 (which quotes Joel 2:32) for "saved." Used in Matt. 9:22; Luke 8:36; and Acts 4:9 for "made well."
6:41 "blessed": See footnote on Matt. 26:26.
6:49: See Mattai 14:26N.
6:50: "It is I." Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See Yoch. 9:9N and 18:5N.
6:56(1) See 5:28(1)N.
6:56(2) See 5:28(2)N.
7:3,7: ha-kabalat ha-Z'qenim and mitzvot anashim. Traditions of the Elders and commandments of men (NTHE and The New Testament in Hebrew on dvar-adonai.org [no longer on-line]).
7:12: See Mattai 15:5N.
7:19: The last phrase is not in the Textus Receptus or Alexandrian Codex. In addition, the key word in this added phrase is "food." Not everything that is eaten in pagan (non-Jewish/Hebraic) societies is "food". (If Elohim said don't eat it, it isn't food.)
7:22: evil eye - ayin ha-ra: an idiom for stinginess. A good (or "whole") eye is generous.
7:27: i.e., the Children of Yisra'el.
8:31: See Matt. 8:20N.
8:33: "Satan" (adversary) is here used as a term of address, not as a proper noun, just as calling someone "teacher" to his face is not addressing him as if that were his name.
10:12: Notice that this does not say that the woman who was divorced BY the man commits adultery if she remarries. See. Matt. 19:9: "marries another." Either partner who brings a divorce and remarries commits adultery. The one who receives the divorce may remarry.
10:45: kofer: (3724) "pitch" (n.) of Noach's ark; also means "ransom, the price of a soul."
11:9: Matt. 21:9.
11:10: See Matt. 21:9N.
12:43: Regarding Yeshua's use of "amen" here, please see Verily or Amen, particularly beginning with the paragraphs starting "But the possibility" and "On one occasion."
13:6: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι). See Yoch. 9:9N and 18:5N.
14:1: See Mattai 26:19N.
14:21: See Mattai 8:20N.
14:62: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See Yoch. 9:9N and 18:5N.
14:63: This act would have disqualified the High Priest at that time if he had been recently anointed. (Lev. 21:10)
15:1-15: I see no proof that the "multitude" shouting at Pilatos for the release of Bar-Abba instead of Yeshua was the common people rather than the Chief Priests, Scribes, Elders, and Sanhedrin. This group would have constituted well over 100 men, certainly worthy of being called a "multitude." Yeshua's "trial" was a political move by this group who were afraid of losing control, which the Romans allowed them to have over the people (John 11:48).
15:18 See Matt. 27:29N.
15:25: For a physician's detailed description of crucifixion, see THIS (WARNING: Detailed and explicit.)
15:40: The earliest mention of Miryam ha-Magdalit is in Lukas 8:2.
16:1: This verse shows definitively that the death of Yeshua could not have been on Friday.
1) He was killed on the 4th day of the week ("Wednesday"), the preparation day before a high Sabbath (John 19:31) and he had to be taken off the stake and buried before sunset (ibid.). (Did you ever wonder why the two criminals' legs needed to be broken? See THIS for an explanation of the physiology of crucifixion.)
2) The women rested on the first day of the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread, a high Sabbath (on "Thursday" that year) which began with the Passover meal the evening before ("Wednesday" after sunset). (Lev. 23:7).
3) They bought and prepared the spices on the sixth day of the week ("Friday") (Markos 16:1; Lukas 23:56), no small job for over 100 pounds of spices.
4) They rested on the weekly Sabbath (Lukas 23:56, "Saturday"), and very early on "the first (day) of the week" ("Sunday") when the sun had risen (Markos 16:2), they went to the tomb and found it empty. We're not told, but he probably rose shortly after sunset on "Saturday" evening, which is when the first day of the week began.
5) This is the proof that Yeshua's words about "the sign of the prophet Jonah," three days and three NIGHTS in the heart of the earth, were a sign of his Messiahship. "Friday" evening to sunrise on "Sunday" in no way constitutes "three days and three nights."
16:2, 9: See Mattai 28:1N.
1:3: The name means "lover of God." There is some discussion as to whether this was the name of an individual or was to "God-fearers" in general. It does appear to be capitalized (in translations), and "most excellent" would seem to be an important individual.
1:8: 2 Chron. 8:13. ALL divisions of priests were on duty during the feasts of Shabbat and Rosh Chodesh, plus Chag ha-Matzot, Shavu`ot, and Sukkot, the three major feasts, in Yerushalayim.
1:13: "call his name": a Hebrew idiom found in a supposedly originally Greek document.
1:19, 35, 60, et al: "answered him and said": a redundancy common in Hebrew, not in Greek.
1:27: "`almah;" Greek, parthenos (παρθένος ) - virgin. (Is. 7:14.) "There is no instance where is can be proved that '`almah' designates a young woman who is not a virgin." - TWOT, pg. 672
1:28: See Mattai 26:49N.
2:7: Yeshua was NOT "born in a manger."
2:13: "Hark, the Herald Angels Sing"??? "Say" is not a misprint. If ever there were a time for angels to sing, it would have been at the birth of the son of Elohim, but they didn't. There is no reference in scripture to angels singing. The Hebrew and Greek words for "sing" and "say" are very different. It wasn't "accidentally" mistranslated to English.
2:21: An excellent example of a Hebrew idiom translated directly from Hebrew to Greek to English: "name was called." One of many such idioms that seem to prove that the gospels were originally written in Hebrew. It isn't a Greek or English idiom. We would simply say "named him."
2:29: "Adonai": Instead of the usual Greek Kurios, the word used here is despotēs (G1203). Being the obvious source of "despot," I have chosen to use Adonai instead. Despotēs appears only nine other times, four being about earthly masters and one (2 Tim. 2:21) being (to me) ambiguous.
2:38: "bi-rushalayim": (בִּרוּשָׁלָ֫יִם). "B-" ('B - "in") before a word beginning with yod is pronounced with the yod to form a single syllable, bi, as if it were birushalayim. (See NTHE on this verse.)
3:22; 9:35: A "bat kol", literally "daughter of a voice" (i.e., an echo), was a more common occurrence than might be supposed. There are numerous accounts of Elohim speaking audibly from ha-shamayim. Such was the case at Mount Sinai and in 1 Kings 19:12-13; Ezek. 1:25; Dan. 4:31; Markos 9:7 (retold in 2 Pet. 1:18); and Acts 11:8-9.
3:36: Not in the genealogy in Gen. 11.
4:2: Devil/malshin: See Markos 1:13N and glossary.
5:5: When the word "master" appears herein, the Greek word epistata (̓επιστάτα) applies to a chief or commander rather than lord (adon) or teacher (moreh).
5:20: "forgiven" - The Hebrew word here is salach (5545), and only God could salach sins, signifying that Yeshua had been given this authority (Matt. 28:18). Did this power make it clear that "Yeshua was God in the flesh"? NO. God gave him this authority, this power on earth as His Son!
5:24: See Mattai 8:20N.
6:15: Simon the Zealot, or Simon from Cana? Was he being called Shim`on ha-kana'i in Hebrew or Greek? See Qana-ite.
6:20: "lifted up his eyes;" another Hebrew idiom. See 2:21N.
6:22: idiom: "malign you."
6:29: This is an idiom concerning response to insults, not to be construed that one should allow him-/herself to be physically assaulted. Yeshua was not saying "don't defend yourself if someone hits you."
7:29: "justifed [Elohim]." dikaioō (δικαιοω - [G1344]). To show to be righteous; to declare to be righteous.
7:47: See 5:20N.
7:50: See shalom in glossary.
8:24: See 5:5N.
8:45: See 5:5N.
8:48: Saved: same root word as in Matt. 27:42; Mark 15:31; Luke 7:50; Acts 2:47; etc.
9:33: See 5:5N.
9:33: Sukkot: the Greek word is tent (skene), also translated as "tabernacle," but "booth, temporary shelter" (sukkah) seems to be more likely the sense intended and is the word used in most (all?) Hebrew translations of the NT.
10:21: See Mattai 21:16N.
11:44: If someone ritually clean were to come in contact with, even walk across, a grave, he was considered then to have become unclean. (Bar-Ilan University)
12:1: "tens of thousands": Grk. muriades (myriads) - μυριάδες; not many "thousands" (chiliadōn - χιλιάδων) as many translations say.
12:42: "servants": Greek is therapeia (θεραπεία ) and means attendants or medical service.
12:55: south - see note on glossary page, "Directions".
12:56: See glossary, `alam.
14:27: "stake": Greek stauros (σταυρός ): an upright stake, hence a "cross," the Roman instrument of execution (Lat.). Wikipedia says "In the literature of that time, stauros ... never means two pieces of timber placed across one another at any angle,"
15:6, 9: See Mattai 26:49N.
15:8: "Drachma" (lit. "handful"). The "lost coin" was a silver drachma equivalent to a Roman denarius, a day's wage. (Approx. the same as a Jewish shekel). The temple or half-shekel tax (Matt. 17:34; Ex. 30:13; 38:26) was a didrachma. (Pictorial Bible Dictionary, The Southwestern Company, 1975)
16:6: "bat" (or bath): A measure equal to about 6 U.S. gallons.RETURN
16:7: "cor": A measure equal to 10 baths.
16:8: The Essenes at Qumran considered themselves to be "Sons of Light." Essenes
16:16: "concerning John" (Gordon, pg. 43). "The Hebrew Matthew (of Ba`al Shem Tov) says, "For all the prophets and the Torah spoke concerning John.
16:17: kotz: a thorn; a decorative mark. The difference between a resh ( ר ) and a dalet ( ד ) is a thorn or horn.
17:2: "millstone of an ass": the upper millstone (turned by an ass), i.e., heavy. HERE is a photo of one. The upper rolled around on top of the lower to crush olives to squeeze the oil out of them.
17:6: sycamine: Morus nigra of the mulberry family. (NASB conc. G4807). Only occurrence of the word in the Bible. (Cf. G4809, sycamore [black mulberry].)
17:13: See 5:5N.
19:13: "mna", a mina (1 Kings 10:17). Heb. maneh (H4488): a measure of weight or money. Equal to 50 shekels (about 20 oz.).
21:8: "many will come, saying, 'Egō eimi'", the Greek being literaly "I am." "Ani hu" - Hebrew - is literally "I he." The English helping verb "am" must be added to make sense to English speakers. The Greek says 'Egō eimi,' which is literally "I am," but Yeshua was not speaking Greek. Consider this: Was Yeshua saying that the ones to come would be claiming to be Messiah, OR claiming that Yeshua was the Messiah but that they would have intentions of leading people astray? (See "John 8:58 - Other Translations" at the bottom of this page.)
22:41: Kneeling to pray is not done by Jews today because they consider it an alien (i.e.: "Christian") tradition, but Christianity got the tradition from the Jews. (E.g.: Ps. 95:6; 2 Chron. 6:13.) In fact, b'rakha (blessing) comes from berekh ("knee"). (JNT Commentary, pg. 145.)
22:70 Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See Yoch. 9:9N and 18:5N.
23:33: See Matt. 27:33N.
23:34: See 5:20N.
This is the King (of) the Jews.
hic est rex Iudaeorum
23:43: Since there was no punctuation in the original Greek, does "today" go with the phrase before it or after it? For a reference, consider John 3:13 and many references in the Scriptures to "sleep" meaning death.
23:43: Gan Eden, i.e. Paradise. Paradeisos (G3857) is used in the Septuagint for the Garden of Eden.
23:56: Notice the order of events:
1) It was the preparation day;
2) then it was (a high) Shabbat;
3) then they prepared spices, which they would not have done on a Shabbat;
4) then it was the weekly Shabbat;
5) then came the first of the week.
(i.e., "Wednesday," the Pesach sacrifice was killed;
"Thursday," (first day of Unleavened Bread - Chag ha-Matzot);
Friday, Saturday, Sunday.)
24:1: "while still very early" - most Eng. Versions say something like "at early dawn," but "early on the first day of the week" is just after sunset on "Saturday" evening.
24:13: Emmaus = Hammat, ref. Wikipedia article "Emmaus Nicopolis."
24:32: Obviously, "pocket Bibles" were not available in those days long before the invention of the printing press. All Jews had most of the Scriptures memorized, or at least were familiar enough with them to know much of them.
24:39: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See Yoch. 9:9N and 18:5N, and "John 8:58 - Other Translations" at the bottom of this page.
1:1: Translating "elohim to its literal meaning, this is saying "the word was many strengths."
1:3: "through" according to NKJV, NLT, NIV, ESV, NASB, RSV, ASV, YLT, DBY, HNV.
1:31: "I didn't know him." This is too simple and unreasonable since they were kinsmen (second cousins?). The verb "know" is the Greek eidō (εἴδω ) or eidon εἶδον, ), "a prim. vb. used only in certain past tenses." 3708, horaō (ὁράω ): a prim . vb.; to see perceive, attend to: -- appear, perceive, undergo. 3609, oida (οἶδα [from 3708]): to have seen or perceived, hence to know: knew, know about, realize, recognize, understand.
The quote would appear to mean that Yochanan didn't realize, while they were growing up, that Yeshua was the one who was coming after, and had been before, him until it was time for him to be revealed and to begin his ministry.
1:51: "amein, amein": Dr. Robert Lindsey, "Verily or Amen".
1:51: [♦♦] See Matt. 8:20N.
2:13: "up to Yerushalayim": From anywhere in the world, even from the highest mountains, one "goes up" to Yerushalayim.
3:3a, 5, 11: "amein" See 1:51N.
3:3b, 7: "from above." KJV: "again". Greek: ἄνωθεν anōthen (509): from above. Heb.: ma'alah (4609): what comes up, a stair (from 5927: to go up, ascend, climb).
3:16: The problem with pronouns: Does "believes in him" ("him who sent me") refer to the Son or the One who gave the Son? Compare 5:24 & 12:44.
4:11: mayim chayyim is a term for moving (living) water, necessary for immersion. (Hence, a small "baptistry" isn't "kosher.")
4:18: At least three Hebrew translations change "husband" from "ish" to "ba`al" from v. 17 to v. 18.
4:26: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N.
5:8: This obvious miracle by Yeshua is almost taken for granted, since we know that he healed many people. But included in this type of miracle is something that is overlooked. This man, we're told, had not walked normally in 38 years. Have you ever lay in bed for 6 months, and been cured of something that prevented you from walking that was not even related to your legs? You literally forget HOW to walk; yet this man got up and started walking normally.
5:11: Did this man consider that perhaps one who could perform a miracle also had the authority to negate mitzvot anashim (commandments of men) concerning what could and could not be done on the Sabbath?
5:19, 24, 25: See 1:51N.
5:20: "ha-Av has affection for ha-Ben." This seems strange, that Elohim "has affection for (philei 5368 from 5384 - friendly ["having common interests" - Zodhiates]) ha-Ben," rather than agape (25), indicating "a direction of the will," "love that expresses compassion" - Zodhiates.
5:24: See 3:16N.
6:20: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 18:5N.
6:26, 32, 47, 53: See 1:51N.
6:35: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N.
6:48: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N.
6:51: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N.
7:34: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N.
7:36: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N.
7:37: Shmini Atzeret: sometimes called the "Eighth Great Day" (literally "eighth assembly") is the day following the seven days of Sukkot and is the last of Yahweh's seven annual feasts (Lev. 23:36). It's often overlooked as being a Shabbat. (http://rcg.org/bics/rcgbic-029.html / http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/148928 ) It is also a special occasion to Jews who call it Simchat Torah; Rejoicing in the Torah. On this day, the final yearly portion of the Torah readings is done, and the scroll is rewound to the beginning. This day, being overlooked as an appointed feast day (mo`ed), gives some credence to the mistaken idea that "Sukkot lasts for 8 or 9 days." (See Lev. 23:36)
RETURN to Matt. 26:19
7:38: See 4:11N.
7:44: "arrested him"? as if he had committed a crime? This goes along with Yeshua's claim that the believers would be brought before the council and scourged (Matt. 10:17). This was a practice in the religious courts, not the secular courts. Stripes were meted out for infractions of the Torah by a member of the congregation called the chazzan. (Today this position has morphed into the cantor.) This was how Rav Sha'ul received his stripes.
8:1: 7:53 - 8:11 do not appear in the most ancient manuscripts.
8:12: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N. "Am" is not translated in this verse; it is understood in the Hebrew.
8:18: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N.
8:23: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N.
8:24: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N.
8:28: Grk. "Egō eimi." (ἐγώ
εἰμι) See 9:9N and 18:5N. This is another verse where Yeshua said, "you shall know that I AM," but the KJV adds, in italics, "he," so it's ignored by trinitarians and bi-theists.
8:33: "have never yet been in bondage." Yet they were "occupied" by the Romans and were paying taxes to them.
8:34, 51, 58: See 1:51N.
8:58: See 18:5N.
9:9: Trinitarians like to claim that Yeshua was proclaiming himself to be Yahweh when he told the Jewish leaders, in John 8:58, "before Abraham was, 'I am.'" For one thing, he wasn't speaking English - or Greek; he was speaking Hebrew and would have said, "Ani hu;" literally "I he." The Greek given is "egō eimi." While this does mean "I am" (and is also used in the "past" tense - I was, I existed, I have been, etc.; see "Other Translations"), it is not in the existential sense (it's called a "helping verb" in this sense in English), and it certainly cannot be claimed to mean that he was proclaiming himself to be God. If that were the case, the blind man who was healed in John 9:1-12 also claimed to be God, because he said the same thing (if he was speaking Greek), "egō eimi;" "I am (the one who was healed)". (See also John 4:26; 6:20; 6:48; 8:18, 24, 28, 58; 9:9; 10:7; 13:13, 19; 18:5, 6, 8; and 1 John 5:7-8)
10:1,7: See 1:51N.
11:18: A stadion (4712) (pl. stadia) was about 607 feet.
12:24: See 1:51N.
13:16, 20, 21, 38: "most assuredly," See 1:51N.
13:19: "I am" - i.e., I am he who is spoken of in the prophecy of Ps. 41:9.
14:12: See 1:51N.
18:5: "ani hu" or "anochi hu" - lit. "I he." Grk: egō eimi. "I AM," the infamous phrase identical to when Yeshua (supposedly) called himself his own father before Pilate. Why don't trinitarians use this verse for the same purpose? (See 9:9N)
18:32: He had said that he would die on the stake. The stake was not a Jewish method of execution, but Roman. (John 12:32-33)
19:3: See Mattai 26:49N.
19:6: "the stake" -- the Greek word (stauroō, 4717) means "to fence with stakes." The "cross" was a stauros, "an upright stake." The common Christian cross like a lower-case "t" is probably not the stake used by the Romans, but was like an upper-case "T", a symbol of the Roman god Mithras, the Greek Attis and their forerunner Tammuz, the Sumerian dying and rising god, consort of the goddess Ishtar. I have chosen to use the simple term "stake" instead of the common translation here of "crucify him" because stauroō is a verb, and the Greek does not appear to include the pronoun "him." Much scholarship says that it was not a "cross" in the modern sense.
19:13: Gabta is of Ara. origin (NASB conc.). Heb. is ritsfah (7531b)[954b] (רִצְפָה).
19:17: See Mattai 27:33N.
19:30: "It is finished." The Greek word here for "finished" is from the same root as "end" or "goal" in Rom. 10:4, "Messiah is the telos (τέλος ) of the Torah for righteousness to everyone who believes." He's saying, "The goal has been reached."
19:42: "Preparation" for the sacrifice of the Passover lamb; that evening would be the beginning of the 7 days of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Chag ha-matzot). See Luke 23:56N.
20:28: "my god": See Glossary, 11)-el.
Title: Ma`asei (doings or works of): from `asah: 1708 - to work, to do, to act, to act with effect; to make, to produce, to prepare.
1:1: "Theofilos" - see Lukas 1:3N.
2:13: Not "yayin (oinon neon)." Grk. gleukos: (γλεῦκος) sweet or new wine.
2:42: koinōnia: see glossary.
2:46: yom yom: an idiom for "day by day" or daily. Repetition of a word or phrase is a Hebrew method of emphasis.
4:2: It was the Sadducees who detained them for teaching about the resurrection, because that was contrary to the Sadducees' beliefs.
5:36: Theudas - 2333: short form of Theodotos: given by God. Heb. equiv. N'tan'el (5417).
8:33a: "By oppression and judgment..." (NASB for Is. 53:8 and several translations similar). Per NLT: "Greek version reads He was humiliated and received no justice."
8:33b: "As for his generation, who considered (etc.)..." (NASB for Is. 53:8; others similar).
8:37: Many manuscripts do not contain this verse.
9:5: Textus Receptus includes: "It is hard for you to kick against the goads."
9:36: Tavita (Tabitha) (Heb.) and Dorkas (Grk.) both mean 'gazelle.'
13:1a: ""the Black" (CJB); Niger (NEEG-ehr)," Lat.: black. Was this a black African?
13:1b: "foster brother". (G4939) suntrophos: from G4862 & G5142: "one brought up with; i.e., a foster brother or an intimate friend.
13:9: Saul's name wasn't "changed to" Paul.
13:48: "appointed to". LNT: "disposed to." Cf. v. 46. "The verb rendered 'ordained' may have here the sense of 'inscribed', 'enrolled'." (New Bible Commentary: Revised, 1970). Cf. Rev. 13:8: "...everyone whose name has not been written before the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb that was slain."
14:12: "Dia" is given in the Greek text but is apparently a Lucaonian (v. 11) version of Zeus, according to The New Bible Commentary: Revised (Guideposts/Eerdmans), 1984.
15:1: Besides "law" and "instruction," torah is also translated custom, ruling,
15:23: Chairein, from chairō (G5463), meaning: to rejoice, be glad; translated: greetings, hail, rejoice. (See also Matt. 26:49N.)
15:29: Not in all mss.
15:34: Not in all mss.
16:5: See 2:46N.
16:16: Puthōn (4436), a mythical serpent slain by Apollo. Divination.
17:28: Quoting Greek poets Epimenides, then Aratus or Cleanthes (JNTC).
17:29: To the Greeks, "god" was not creative, in charge, or "love." The concept of "god" was initiated by the philosophers. For a good description, read "The Greek Concept of God" in the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament under the heading "theos."
18:21: Phrase probably added. (indicated by Vulgate, ASV, Douay, JNTC, Weymouth, NASB, and Darby)
21:20: "tens of thousands": Grk.
muriades - μυριάδες [murias - μυριάς G3461], not "thousands" (chiliadōn - χιλιάδων [chilias - χιλιάς G5505]) as most translations say.
22:16: "Adonai." I used this appellation of "God" rather than "ha-Adon," which some might consider to be referring to Yeshua, to correspond to Sha'ul's twice-stated admonition, "Whosoever shall call upon the name of YHWH shall be saved," a quote from Yo'el 2:32.
24:7-8: Many mss. add: (6b) "And we wanted to judge him according to our own Law. (7) But Lysias the commander came along, and with much violence took him out of our hands, (8a) ordering his accusers to come before you."
25:21: "Sebastos": reverend, august, hence Augustus, a Roman emperor.
25:23: Bernikē (Bernice; dau. of Herod Agrippa I): a Macedonian form of Greek for "to bear, carry, bring forth" and "victory."
28:11: "Ha-t'omim", "the twins." (1359: Dioskouroi [Διόσκουροι]: The Dioskuri, the twin sons of Zeus.) Some versions (incl. KJV, NLT, NIV, Webster) say Castor and Pollux.
1:23: "likeness of an image": "likeness": "that which is made like something." "Image": i.e., lit. statue, fig. representation. RSV: "...images resembling..." KJV: "..an image made like to..." Amp.: "..exchanged for and represented by image, resembling..." NASB: "...an image in the form of..." See also Heb. 1:3N, Gen. 1:26, 27N.
3:2: massa: (H4853) burden, a load; utterance, oracle. "They were 'burdens' within the prophets until they expressed them." -- Spiros Zodhiates, Th.D, Lexical Aids to the New Testament.
3:4: mē genoito: (G3361 - "not" plus G1096 - "to come into being"): "God forbid" in the KJV. Heb. chalilah; (H2486)[321a]: far be it! (from H2490c: chalal; to pollute, defile, profane.)
3:31: "establish": Grk. histemi (G2476): to make to stand; to maintain, to abide, continue. (Zodh.)
6:21: "end": telos (G5056): an end, a toll. End, fulfillment, goal, outcome.
6:22: "result": telos. See 6:21N.
7:1: There's a good chance that, through the witness of this verse, Sha'ul was speaking to Yisra'elim, those of the n'fatzim (dispersion) who, because they were not Y'hudim, were goyim.
8:30: pro'orizō: 4309; to determine or decree beforehand. 8:29, used with a personal object; applies also to the previous verb 'foreknew.' The translation is "for whom he did foreknow, he also did foreordain." The purpose of this foreordination is expressed in the phrase, "to be conformed to the image of his son." ... The important thing for us to consider when the word is used is not who are the objects of this predestination, but what are they predestined to. They are always predestined to salvation, to adoption, or to glory, etc. --- Zodhiates.
9:3: anathema (ανάθεμα): see glossary, first description.
10:1: "Request": the Greek word here is de'ēsis (1162) (δέησις) which means "a need, entreaty, petition," equiv. to Heb. sha'al, (7592) (שָׁאַל) "to ask, inquire." The Greek word proseuchomai (4336) (προσεύχομαι) means "to pray," equiv. to Heb. palal (6419) (פָּלַל),
to intervene, interpose.
10:1: Sha'ul is writing to goyim/gentiles here. He's the "apostle to the gentiles," so we can assume that Yisra'el here is intended to mean all 12 tribes. But the kingdom of the Y'hudim is not being addressed, only the kingdom of Yisra'el, many of whom are probably present in every nation surrounding the Mediterranean.
10:4: "goal": telos. See 6:21N
10:18: "sound": Heb. qavam (6957): cord; measuring line.
11:26: Ps. 117:1. "to Zion": The Greek of this verse says "ek Sion," (έκ Σιὼν)
- "from Zion" - even though the source verse says לְצִיּוֹן
- "to Zion," - and is so translated in 12+ versions. (LXX: "for Sion's sake")
12:6: These are the seven spiritual gifts (charismata), not the nine pneumatikon ("spiritual things") often mistakenly called "spiritual gifts" in 1 Cor. 12:1.
12:10: "love": Grk.: agapaō (ἀγαπάω ): indicates a direction of the will and finding one's joy in anything. Contr. with phileo (φιλέω ), to be contented with, denoting common interests, hence befriending. -- Zodhiates.
Heb. (for agapaō): ahavah (אַהֲבָה ): love, beloved.
15:11: et: untranslated indicator of the direct object which follows.
15:26: koinōnia: see glossary
1:9: koinōnia: see glossary.
6:9: homosexual, sodomite. Sodomite; Grk, arsenokoites (733a): male + bed. (See also Lev. 20:13.)
8:6: "exist." There is no Greek equivalent here. The interlinear of the Greek says "... to us one God the Father, of whom things all, and we for Him, and one Lord Iesous Christos, through whom things all, and we by Him."
10:7: "rose up to laugh (tzachaq, 6711 [צָחַק]: to laugh, sport, mock, play)", root of Yitzchak (Isaac).
10:16: koinōnia: see glossary.
13:11: "child", see Matt. 21:16N.
15:33: Quote from "Thais," a comedy by Menander. (JNTC).
16:2: "The first day of ha-shabbaton" = the first day of the week. Evidence that the day of worship had not been changed from the seventh-day Sabbath. Y'hudim do not handle money on Shabbat.
6:14: koinōnia: see glossary.
8:4: koinōnia: see glossary.
9:13: koinōnia: see glossary.
13:14: koinōnia: see glossary.
2:7: uncircumcision: the Greek word, akrobustia (203), means "foreskin," and is not the opposite of "circumcision," peritome (4061).
2:9: koinōnia: see glossary.
3:13: When an NT writer uses a quote from the TaNaKh, I try to use an interpretation of the TaNaKh, but here the modern Hebrew translators (THREE VERSIONS) of the NT actually quoted the Hebrew verse in Deuteronomy ("kilelat Elohim talui" - "cursed by God is he that is hanged") rather than translating the Greek of Galatians ("Cursed [is] everyone who has been hung on a tree."). I have chosen to use the original. A "tree" is mentioned earlier in the Deut. verse, but not in this phrase, whereas "God" IS mentioned in Deut., but not here in the Greek.
1:5: See Rom. 8:30N.
2:11: See Gal. 2:7N.
2:12: citizenship/commonwealth: Greek: politeia, from politeuō, "to live as a citizen."
6:10: 1) strength: 2904 kratos-strength, might, more especially manifested power, dominion. Denotes the presence and significance of force or strength rather than its exercise. (Zodhiates)
2) might: 2479 ischus-strength, especially physical power as an endowment. (ibid.)
1:5: koinōnia: see glossary
2:1: koinōnia: see glossary
2:6: Heb (3 versions): d'mut: (1823) likeness, similitude. Zodhiates: "It is used as an adv., 'like' or 'as' in Is. 13:4; Ps. 58:5. As a noun it occurs 26 times in the OT. Ezek. never claims to say that he saw God, only the 'appearance' of God (Ezek. 1:5, 10, 13...) Is. 13:4 uses the word for audible and structural similarities."
3:10: koinōnia: see glossary
3:16: "rule": canōn (κανών - 2583) a straight rod; a rule, standard.
1:15: See also Rev. 3:14; Gen. 1:3.
4:16: (16) Zech. 14:4.
1:10: homosexual, sodomite. Sodomite: Grk, arsenokoites 733a: male + bed. (See also Lev. 20:13.)
1:3: "image": χαρακτήρ charakter : a tool for engraving: -- "exact representation"
ὑπόστασις hupostasis : a support, substance, steadiness; hence assurance: -- assurance, confidence, nature.
"Charaktēer signifies the image impressed as corresponding with the original or pattern. On account of this idea of close resemblance it has for its syn. mimema, imitation, anything imitated, a copy; εἰκών eikōn , image; apeikonismai, representation." - Zodhiates.
See also Rom. 1:23N.
1:8: "Your kiseh is from Elohim; it is forever and ever; ..." Ps. 45:7, Stone Chumash. The subject of the reference is the Mashiach, v. 1-2. (45:2 [Stone]: "You are beautiful beyond other men, charm is poured upon your lips, therefore Elohim has blessed you for eternity."
2:7: "Elohim": mighty ones; angels.
3:8, 15: Quoting Ps. 95:8: Merivah means "strife," Massah means "testing." (Ex. 17:7)
12:22: See Acts 21:20N.
13:1: See Rom. 12:10N
13:16: koinōnia: see glossary.
1:22: "love[♦] [phileō (5368)] of the achim": See Rom. 12:10N.
1:7: "love [phileo] of the achim": See Rom. 12:10N.
1:19: "day star": "lucifer" in the Catholic Vulgate. For some reason, the KJV and other translators chose to translate it here and in Job 11:17 but not in Isaiah 14:12.
2:4: "tartaroō"; see Tartaros in Glossary.
3:12: "day of Elohim": i.e., "the day of the Lord" of Is. 13; Ezek. 13, 30; Joel 1,2, 3; etc. and Rev. 1:10.
1:3, 3, 6, 7: koinonia: see glossary.
2:18: "antichrist" - anti: over against, opposite, hence instead of. In compound, denotes contrast, requital, substitution, correspondence; christ - anointing. Therefore, "antichrist" doesn’t mean "against the Messiah," but is a replacement for the Messiah.
3:8: "ha-satan" – See ha-satan in glossary.
4:3: See 2:18N.
5:7-8: KJV: "For there are three that bear record [in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth,] the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one." The bracketed portion here does not appear in any Greek manuscript before the sixteenth century. The earlier manuscripts, then, are saying that these three are referring to function, not substance of being. It simply says that there are three that testify and these three are one. There are 'three' in obedience to the commandment given in Deut. 19:15. (Reference angelfire.com 11/17/12 [off-line 3/3/13]) See also John 9:9N and 18:5N.
7: See 1 John 2:18N
9: "body of Moshe". Targum Yonatan/Testament of Moses, JNTC.
14: See Acts 21:20N
1:8: This verse is QUOTING the FATHER, NOT THE SON. See references in the chapter footnote. Quotation marks are used in RSV, NASB, LNT, Wms, Beck, CJB, NKJV, NIV, ESV, YLT, HNV. Nowhere else is it even hinted that Yeshua was "Almighty/Shaddai." The powers that he had on earth were given to him.
1:11: Some versions add after "Saying," "Ani ha-Alef v'ha-Tav, the first and the last;"
1:13: See Matt. 8:20N.
2:17: "In the ancient world a white stone was used as an admission ticket to public festivals; believers will be admitted to the Messianic feast." -- JNT Commentary, pg 797.
3:14: See also Col. 1:15.
5:11: See Acts 21:20N.
7:5-8: the tribes of Dan and Efrayim are not mentioned; M'nasheh and Levi are.
7:10: i.e., "it is to God that we owe our salvation." (Weymouth NT)
7:14: tzarah: (6869[a]) straits, distress, trouble. Not referred to as "the tribulation," but once as "the trib. of those days." (Mod. trouble, misfortune.)
7:15: Grk. skenosei (4637) – "tabernacled," from 4634: skenopegia – the setting up of tents. Used for the Feast of Tabernacles in John 7:2; hence, Sukkot.
9:16: Lit. two myriads of myriads. See Acts 21:20N.
12:10: accuser. See ha-satan.
13:18: "The number of his name" is not spelled out in the Greek; it’s simply three Greek letters.
15:4: lit. "righteousnesses" or "righteous acts."
20:9: lit. "ate them up;" i.e., they were no more.
21:6: "the first and 'with' the last." Is. 41:4.
21:16: about 1500 miles.
21:19: fourth foundation: smaragdos
σμάραγδος (4665): NASB, KJV, Berry, RSV, Strong, Hend. Interl., Interl. Bib. NT - emerald.
NTHE: baraket: NASB -- emerald
HNV: yahalom: NASB -- diamond.
DID YESHUA CLAIM TO BE GOD BY SAYING "I AM"?
First, of course, is that Yeshua wasn't speaking English. Nor was he, in all probability, speaking Greek, even though that is what we must rely on as recording his words. Most likely, he was speaking Hebrew.
Of the many recorded instances in the English Bible of his saying "I am (something)", few, if any of them, actually have the Hebrew equivalent.
"I am the light of the world" in Hebrew is "Ani or ha`olam." Literally "I LIGHT THE WORLD." We must add the definite article and prepositions to make it logical in English. "I (am the) LIGHT (of) THE WORLD."
"I am the good shepherd." "Anokhi hu ha-ro'eh ha-tov." ("Ani" is a shortened version of "anokhi.")
"I am the door." "Anokhi ha-dalet."
and so on.
Christianity's favorite verse for "proving" that he said, "I AM God" (i.e., "I'm my own father") is John 8:58. But listed below are other translations than "I am."
What we have recorded in the Greek is the 2-word phrase "ego eimi." This does literally translate to English as "I am," but Hebrew translations of the NT give the Hebrew as "Ani (or "anokhi") hu." This is translated literally as "I he."
Here are most of the occurrences of the phrase "ego eimi" in the NT. As you can see, many of them are not translated "I AM", or they are part of another phrase.
"ἐγώ εἰμι" :
14:27 - "It is I; be not afraid"
Mark 6:50 (see Mat. 14:27)
13:6 - "Many will come in my name saying, "I am he."
14:62: "And Jesus said, 'I am (the Christ)'"
Luke 21:8 (see Mk. 13:6)
22:27: "I am among you..."
22:70: "Ye say that I am (the son of God)."
John 1:20; 3:28; 4:26
6:20 (see Matt. 14:27),35,41,48,51
7:34: "Where I am, there you cannot come."
9:9: Spoken by a healed blind BEGGAR.
12:26: "Where I am, there also...
18:5 (in the garden to those seeking him),6,8,37;
Acts 9:5; 10:21; 18:10; 22:3, 8; 26:15, 29;
Rev. 1:8, 17; 2:23; 22:16.
John 8:58 - OTHER TRANSLATIONS:
NASB, 1963, 1970: I have been.
New Testament by J. R. Noyes, 1869: I have been.
James Moffett, 1923: "I have existed before Abraham was born."
The Bible, an American Translation, by J. M. P. Smith and E. J. Goodspeed, 1935: "I existed before Abraham was born."
The Simple English Bible, International Bible Translators, 1981: "I was alive before Abraham was born."
The New Testament, S. Sharp: "I was before Abraham."
The New Testament in the Language of Today, W. F. Beck: "I was before Abraham."
Twentieth Century New Testament: "Before Abraham existed, I was."
The New Testament in the Language of the People, C. B. Williams: "I existed before Abraham was born."
The Unvarnished New Testament: "I have already been."
The Complete Gospels, R. J. Miller, ed.: "I existed."
The Living New Testament: "I was in existence before Abraham."
Laird, G. H., New Life Testament, 1969: "Before Abraham, I was."
Good News for the World, 1969: "I already was before Abraham."
New Believer's Bible, New Living Translation: "I existed before Abraham."
The Book, New Testament: "I was in existence before Abraham."
Latimore, "The New Testament: "I am from before Abraham."
New Testament, Contemporary English Version: "even before Abraham was, I was."
The Syriac New Testament, Murdock: "I was."
ΝΥΝ ΔΕ ΖΗΤΕΙΤΕ
(nun de zeteite me apokteinai)
(anthrōpon os ten)
(aletheian umin lelaleka en)
(ekousa para tou Theou)
(touto Abraam ouk epoiesen)
but now you seek to kill me,
a man who has told you the truth that
I heard from God.
This is not what Abraham did. (ESV)
COMPARE John 14:10: Now let's compare how John 14:10 is translated in several modern translations. The phrase in question is "I am in the Father" and "the Father is in me." One would think that Jesus and the Father were one and the same being from this wording. However, the Greek word "en" they translated "in." It can also be translated "with." Notice the comparison:
1769 Authorized Version of KJV: "I am in the Father."
1902 Rotherham Bible: "I am in the Father."
1933 George M Lamsa Translation: "I am with the Father."
1961 New World Translation: "I am in union with the Father."
1989 New Revised Standard Version: "I am in the Father."
1995 New American Standard Bible: "I am in the Father."
2000 New International Version: "I am in the Father."
2001 2001 Translation: "I'm in unity with the Father."
2003 New Simplified Bible: "I am with the Father."
~~From: Simple Bible Truths
Other Bible versions' translation of the end of John 1:1:
Reijnier Rooleeuw, 1694, "and the Word was a god"
Harwood, 1768, "and was himself a divine person"
Newcome, 1808, "and the word was a god"
Abner Kneeland, 1822, "The Word was a God"
Thompson, 1829, "the Logos was a god"
Leicester Ambrose, 1879, "And the logos was a god"
Stage, 1907, "Das Wort war selbst gttlichen Wesens" [The Word/word was itself a divine Being/being].
Charles A.L. Totten, 1900, "the Word was Deistic" [=The Word was Godly]
J.N. Jannaris, 1901, "[A]nd was a god"
George William Horner, 1911, "[A]nd (a) God was the word"
Holzmann, 1926, "ein Gott war der Gedanke" [a God/god was the Thought/thought]
Robert Harvey, D.D., 1931 "and the Logos was divine (a divine being)"
Ernest Findlay Scott, 1932, "[A]nd the Word was of divine nature"
William Temple, Archbishop of York, 1933, "And the Word was divine."
Rittenlmeyer, 1938, "selbst ein Gott war das Wort" [itself a God/god was the Word/word]
Goodspeed, 1939, "the Word was divine"
Lyder Brun (Norw. professor of NT theology), 1945, "Ordet var av guddomsart" [the Word was of divine kind]
Ervin Edward Stringfellow (Prof. of NT Language and Literature/Drake
University, 1943, "And the Word was Divine"
Torrey, 1947, "the Word was god"
Pfaefflin, 1949, "war von gttlicher Wucht" [was of divine Kind/kind]
James L. Tomanec, 1958, [T]he Word was a God"
New English, 1961, "what God was,the Word was"
Cotton Parch Version, 1970, "and the Idea and God were One"
Moffatt, 1972, "the Logos was divine"
Translator's NT, 1973, "The Word was with God and shared his nature"
Philip Harner, 1974, "The Word had the same nature as God"
Maximilian Zerwich S.J./Mary Grosvenor, 1974, "The Word was divine"
Siegfried Schulz, 1975, "And a god (or, of a divine kind) was the Word"
Barclay, 1976, "the nature of the Word was the same as the nature of God"
Schneider, 1978, "and godlike sort was the Logos"
Schonfield, 1985, "the Word was divine"
Revised English, 1989, "what God was, the Word was"
~~Also from Simple Bible Truths.
A few of the Christian mis-/con-/per-ceptions in the Bible:
1. Jesus was "born in a manger." (Try reading Luke 2:7 again.)
2. "Satan" is a proper name. (In Hebrew, "satan" is almost always preceded by the definite article. This is not done with proper names.)
3. "Lucifer" is another name for "Satan." (Is. 14:12. Read in context, the word refers to the King of Babylon (v. 4). It is translated from helel ben shachar (light-bringer, son of dawn).
4. "Belial" is another name for "Satan." (It simply means worthlessness, wickedness.)
The Hebrew Names 'Plus' Version (HNPV) is based on the World Messianic Bible, which is in the Public Domain.
The World Messianic Bible
The HNPV is free for public use.
Attribution and a link would be appreciated but are not necessary. May it be to you a blessing.
Last update 14 May 2020